Scientific Research Radiology Timeline
Hafez Sherif’s Mega Scan, with the strong scientific background it possesses, has augmented the development of radiology in Egypt, giving such discipline a scientific dimension it needs. No wonder that Mega Scan is now one of the best, well-established medical centres in Egypt. The following timelines show how Dr. Hafez Sherif-Mega Scan was first to:
  • Introduce the art of radiology in Egypt, (1966).
  • Use Tomography in Egypt, at Mega Scan Down Town Centre, Bab El-Louk, El Falaky Square (1975).
  • Introduce the first Magnetic Resonance Imaging system in Egypt (1995).
  • Manipulate advanced, state-of-the-art radiological systems, at Mega Scan Al-Mohandseen Centre (2006).

Radiology Short History

November 8, 1895: William Conrad Röntgen discovered electromagnetic radiation, which he called x-rays, as he didn’t know the nature of these rays by then.
December 22, 1895: Röntgen developed the first radiograph of his wife’s hand. Later on, on December 28, he made public his discovery of new rays, only gaining worldwide fame two months later. In 1901, William Conrad Röntgen was awarded the first Nobel Prize in Physics. At first, x-rays were used to diagnose bone fractures, localize foreign bodies, and detect bone diseases.
1896: Weker develops the first skull radiograph.
1918: Walter Dandy develops ventriculography (imaging of the heart), and creates what he calls ‘Röntgenography of the brain’. Later on, contrast media were discovered, helping in the imaging of body tissues. Development of various types of contrast media went underway, resulting in each contrast medium used for a special part of the body. Magnetic resonance technologies followed the same course, though they differ from contrast media.
1921: French scientist, André Bocage creates the first tomography (body-section imaging).
1927: Moniz succeeds in creating an X-ray examination of brain vessels using contrast media (Cerebral Angiography).
1929: First human Cardiac Catheterization operation by Werner Forssmann.
1950: Egan and Gross simplified mammography in Germany for the public, to evaluate and diagnose breast cancer.
1951: Benedict Cassen greatly contributed to Nuclear Medicine by developing the first rectilinear scanner, sometimes called the scintillation camera.
1954: Hertz and Elder uses Echocardiographic techniques for the first time to monitor heart activity (by ultrasonography).
1956: Cournand, Richards, and Forssmann shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, “for their discoveries concerning heart catheterization".
1957: Donald creates the first ultrasound of the uterus during pregnancy (Hysterosonography). This was the first time to have a fetal view.
1958: Hal Anger develops the Gamma camera, which, together with the technetium radioisotope, pushed further the development of nuclear medicine.
1958: Mason Sones starts to develop Selective coronary angiography.
1959: Thomson Co. designed an 11-cm tube, acting as an amplifier tube by 3 thousands, which helped in receiving images from a TV camera. This amplifier tube marked a real breakthrough in radiology.
1960: Wolf and Ruzicka invented Breast Xerography.
1960: This is the revolutionary year of development for radiology, cardiovascular medicine, radiographic imaging, recording, physiologic monitoring, cardiovascular pharmaceuticals, and medical supplies, and equipments. It was the year of breakthroughs in technology in general.

All of these helped much in the development of cardiac catheterization and radiology.

1966: Establishing the first private radiological and imaging center in Egypt, by Hafez Sherif. The birth of Mega Scan.
1970: Ultrasounds get used in all diagnostic operations, due to continuous developments undergoing in that branch of radiology.
1970 – present: Cardiac catheterization plays an increasingly greater role in medicine, especially with the many types introduced of interventional techniques. The usage of computer applications in cardiac catheterization has also helped in the rapid development of cardiovascular medicine and surgery. This largely reduces risks accompanied with diagnostics and internal procedures.
1971: One of the greatest evolutions in x-rays came when the English Electrical Engineer Godfrey Hounsfield, together with the American Physicist Allan McLeod Cormack, invented X-Ray Computed tomography, which is considered the greatest achievement in the field after the discovery of x-rays. Both scientists were rewarded Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1979. Computed Tomography systems undergone several changes and developments, as they developed to be Spiral (Helical) CT, then Electron-beam. After that, new Multislice CT generations appeared. Now we have the Multislice CT 256-slice, and still others are underway.

With the use of Multislice scanners, the number of images generated increased, allowing for more data production and demonstrate various structures, compared to single-slice scanning. This necessitates the wide usage of the PACS (Picture, Archiving and Communication Systems), RIS (Radiology Information System), and HIS (Hospital Information Systems), between different radiological departments and other departments, whether in the same city, in different cities, in the same country, or between different countries.

1972: Paul Lauterbur proposed the usage of magnetic imaging resonance (MRI) in medical imaging. He succeeded in producing the first resonance image for a sample of water.
1974: Dr. Andreas Gruentzig started his first experiments to use a PTCA balloon. He developed cardiac catheterization so that it is more used for treatment purposes.
1975: Inventing the first Positron Emission Tomography (PET) system by M. M. Ter-Pogossian, and M. E. Phelps. This technique combines both nuclear medicine and tomography.
1975: Using the first Tomography system in Egypt, at Mega Scan Down Town Centre, Bab El-Louk, El-Falaky Square.
1977: Raymond Damadian successfully designs and invents the first MRI scanner for human body imaging.
1978: Universal usage of ultrasounds to monitor fetal development starting from weeks 8 or 10 for early detection of any (genetic, chromosome) deformations, and to identify its gender. This also helps in applying any fetal treatments, or performing necessary surgeries. Now it is also possible to generate 3D & 4D ultrasounds. Imaging of blood vessels and cardio imaging can be easily done using color-doppler ultrasounds.
Later on, scientists thought of using MRI physics in medical imaging. That was a revolutionary step to use magnetic resonance in such field.
Mid-1980: Positron Emission Tomography (PET) is now widely used in experiments. By late 1980, PET gets more used in clinical applications.
X-ray-based Bone Mineral Densitometry (BMD) greatly developed between 1960 & 1970. Yet, its real start was in 1987, where the first BMD system was released for commercial use.
1987: Charles Dumoulin perfected MRA (Magnetic Resonance Angiography) which could image flowing blood without the use of contrast agents.
It is noteworthy that a combination has been made between MRI and MRS (Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy) in late 1980s. This enabled the study of the body’s chemistry whilst imaging at the same time.
1993: The usage of functional MRI (fMRI). This technique allows for mapping the neural activity of different parts in the brain.
1994: Researchers at State University of New York use of hyperpolarized gas imaging like Xenon gas 129, and helium 3.
1995:Introducing the first MRI system in Egypt at Mega Scan – Hafez Sherif centres.
2006: Dr. Hafez Sherif inaugurates Al-Mohandseen branch, equipped with state-of-the-art diagnostic radiology systems.